Figueredo, Aurelio José, and Sarah Christine Berry. Those who have a professional knowledge of evolutionary biology know that it is not possible to cook up after the fact explanations of just any trait. Learn more about short stories in this article. [14][15][16][17], Berry et al. Independent Practice: Show Not Tell Rewrite sentences to write a showing not telling sentence. Illustrated etext of Just So Stories, by Rudyard Kiping. Thus the trait's original purpose is irrelevant because it has been co-opted for a new purpose and maintains itself within the species because it increases reproductive success of members of the species who have it (versus those who may have lost it for some reason); nature is blind to the original "intended" function of the trait. The Psychologist 22, no. Rudyard Kipling, Just So Stories, Li2Go edition, (1902), accessed January 18, 2021, https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/. The author died in 1936, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less . This breaks the listener's experience of the story. Writing doesn’t always come that naturally to everyone, so we’ve put together some tips to help you write a fundraising story that’s unique, engaging and inspiring for your supporters. 1 (2017): 39-39. argue that the just-so accusation is a result of the fact that, like other evolutionary sciences, evolutionary psychology is partially a historical discipline. Cognition 128, no. There is nothing wrong with explaining facts that are already known: no one faults a physicist for explaining why stars shine or apples fall toward earth. Here’s a very tell-y example: They went to New York to see Cats. Functions Are Much Better Explanations", "Interview with Alvaro Fischer and Roberto Araya for the Chilean newspaper 'El Mercurio, "Seven Key Misconceptions about Evolutionary Psychology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Just-so_story&oldid=1000590521, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 19:54. Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/. https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/, Florida Center for Instructional Technology. o She was so sad when she lost her puppy. [6] Similarly, Robert Kurzban suggested that "The goal should not be to expel stories from science, but rather to identify the stories that are also good explanations. [12][13], Lisa DeBruine argues that evolutionary psychology can generate testable, novel predictions. Source: Kipling, Rudyard.Just So Stories. Example: [8] In a response to Gould's criticism, John Tooby and Leda Cosmides argued that the "just-so" accusation is unsubstantiated as it claims evolutionary psychologists are only interested in facts already known, when in reality evolutionary psychology is interested in what can be predicted from already known information as a means of pursuing unknown avenues of research. John was a poor farmer. He became a French tourist guide and started leading an honourable life. Here are two awesome story examples that illustrate many of the key points in stories and storytelling: [19], How the Snake Lost Its Legs: Curious Tales from the Frontier of Evo-Devo is a 2014 book on evolutionary developmental biology by Lewis I. They both enjoyed it very much. The most commonly used standard format for a User Story creation is stated below: As a so that I can . 2 (2011): 288-294. Hypotheses, by definition, require further empirical assessment, and are a part of normal science. American psychologist 53, no. Jackson, Russell E., and Jule Gomez de Garcia. If you do forget a detail, weave it back in without breaking the experience of the story. However, the authors argue that if this made evolutionary psychology nothing but just-so storytelling, then other partially historical scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, geology or cosmology would also be just-so storytelling. Jun 26, 2018 by Shreya Sharma in Age 7-12. [10] In 2001 interview, Leda Cosmides argued:[11]. So at last they came to be like charms, all three of them — the whale tale, the camel t… WE have to take that into account so that we will go along the growth of the science and technology. . According to Buss, co-opted exaptationist and spandrel hypotheses have an additional evidentiary burden compared to adaptationist hypotheses, as they must identify both the later co-opted functionality and the original adaptational functionality, while proposals that something is a co-opted byproduct must identify what the trait was a byproduct of and what caused it to be co-opted; it is not sufficient simply to propose an alternative exaptationist, functionless byproduct or spandrel hypotheses to the adaptationist one, rather these evidentiary burdens must be met. Short story, brief fictional prose narrative that is shorter than a novel and that usually deals with only a few characters. Saving money and being frugal with your wages is extremely popular as people have less and less money these days after paying rent, mortgage, bills etc. This phrase is a reference to Rudyard Kipling's 1902 Just So Stories, containing fictional and deliberately fanciful tales for children, in which the stories pretend to explain animal characteristics, such as the origin of the spots on the leopard. While writing a novel can be a Herculean task, just about anybody can craft—and, most importantly, finish—a short story.Writing a novel can be a tiresome task, but writing a short story, it's not the same. Yeah, don't be that guy. For example, Dodie Smith opens I Capture the Castle (1949): ‘I write this sitting in the kitchen sink.’ The narrator Cassandra’s choice of sitting place is unusual, intriguing us to read the next sentence. The title is "A factual homage to Rudyard Kipling's fanciful Just So Stories."[20][21]. However, analogy compares two completely different things and look for similarities between two things or concepts and it only focuses on that angle. Evolutionary psychologists do not need to travel back in time to test their hypotheses, as their hypotheses yield predictions about what we would expect to see in the modern world. Just So Stories. I just need two; I’ll come up and pay for them now!” Just So Stories are considered some of Kipling's best works. The strength of an evolutionary approach is that it can aid discovery: it allows you to generate predictions about what programs the mind might contain, so that you can conduct experiments to see if they in fact exist.....[W]hat about evolutionary explanations of phenomena that are already known? I have used this with my Year 5 Class but it could be easily differentiated to suit any KS2 class. The Just So Stories began as bedtime stories told by Kipling to his daughter "Effie" (Josephine, Kipling's firstborn); when the first three were published in a children's magazine, a year before her death, Kipling explained: "in the evening there were stories meant to put Effie to sleep, and you were not allowed to alter those by one single little word. : a speculative story or explanation of doubtful or unprovable validity that is put forward to account for the origin of something (such as a biological trait) when no verifiable explanation is known When large claims about humans hang on just-so stories about the evolution of animal behavior, a selective reading of the ethnographic record or the casual lumping together of human and animal behavior, the wise … My manager said if you want a few, we can go ahead and give them to you early.” Me: “Oh, my gosh, that would be great! “Just So Stories” is an interdisciplinary and interactive program that employs the innovative methods of teaching and learning. More to the point, every decent evolutionary explanation has testable predictions about the design of the trait. Tell the story in a way that is logical and flows smoothly. Read Part II here. Evolutionary hypotheses – whether generated to discover a new trait or to explain one that is already known – carry predictions about the design of that trait. Examples of Frugal Blogs. By contrast, the "bottom-up" approach, whereby an observation is made and a hypothesis is generated to explain the observation, could potentially be a form of just-so storytelling if no novel predictions were developed from the hypothesis. For example, the hypothesis that pregnancy sickness is a byproduct of prenatal hormones predicts different patterns of food aversions than the hypothesis that it is an adaptation that evolved to protect the fetus from pathogens and plant toxins in food at the point in embryogenesis when the fetus is most vulnerable – during the first trimester. The predictions of the theory were confirmed and the facts were previously unknown until evolved navigation theory tested them, demonstrating that evolutionary psychology can make novel predictions of previously unknown facts. "The Beginning of the Armadillos" Tortoise and Painted Jaguar come across a new kind of creature in the woods and try to decide what it is with the help of Mother Jaguar. ... it's up to you to just say no.' Tone in writing is conveyed by both the choices of words and the narrator of the story. The audience is just as active a participant as the storyteller. What we were has become history. This is the best moral story for kids. An example of such used within “The Tell-Tale Heart” is “I undid the lantern-oh, so cautiously –cautiously (for the hinges creaked) –I undid it just so much that a single thin ray fell upon the vulture eye.” Here Poe uses the parenthesis to explain why the speaker undid the lantern so cautiously. This is the start of the story, where we meet the main character or characters, understand the setting, and deduce the conflict.. For example, we might meet a main character, named Fiona, who just moved to Ireland, and is writing her first book. College Essay Examples: How to Write Your Story ... We'd done a pre-reading exercise earlier in class and I'd gathered that Antigone was just the sad story of … In Charlotte's Web by E. B. "Evolved navigation theory and the plateau illusion." This method makes it generally impossible to engage in just-so storytelling because the hypothesis and predictions are made a priori, based on the theory. [9] Steve Stewart-Williams argues that all scientific hypotheses are just-so stories prior to being tested, yet the accusation is seldom levelled at other fields. Al-Shawaf et al. Cognition 119, no. Such tales are common in folklore and mythology (where they are known as etiological myths—see etiology). Is it a call to action, is it a simple narrative, or are you presenting a case? Remember, this story is not a sales ad. DeBruine, Lisa. "Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels." That’s a fun story. The children will read some examples of Just So Stories by Rudyard Kipling and then have a go at writing their own based on how an animal got its distinct feature. o The cake was delicious. Once upon a time, there lived two neighbors named John and Peter. Just so definition: Just so is used to agree with or confirm a statement that has been made. "[7] In his book The Triumph of Sociobiology, John Alcock suggested that the term just-so story as applied to proposed evolved adaptations is "one of the most successful derogatory labels ever invented". The pejorative[1] nature of the expression is an implicit criticism that reminds the listener of the essentially fictional and unprovable nature of such an explanation. For many, it is as natural as breathing is to lungs. argue that many evolutionary psychology hypothesis are formed in a "top-down" approach; a theory is used to generate a hypothesis and predictions are then made from this hypothesis. Inspired by Hemingway's famous six-word tale, "For sale: baby shoes, never worn,” the "six word story" has served as a prompt for decades, testing writers' ability to create their own succinct masterpieces with all sorts of clever results, including the popular 2006 Six Word Memoirs project. They give fantastical explanations for various phenomena. Kipling, Rudyard. It is a refreshing activity. [5] In the ensuing years many of Gould's conclusions have been challenged by Charles Murray, Steven Pinker, Steve Stewart-Williams and others. Here are many examples of short stories for you to read online. So which is the more constrained and sober scientific approach? Stewart-Williams also agrees with the idea that evolutionary explanations can potentially be made up for almost anything, but argues the same could be said of competing approaches, such as sociocultural explanations, so in the view of Stewart-Williams this is not a useful criticism. Before you start to build your story, take some time to think about the purpose of your story and what you want your viewers' journey to be. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples White, although the book is sad, the tone is one of peace and acceptance:. Photo: Gabriel Duarte This is the first part of a series of essays. Everyone’s reasons for fundraising are different, and this is your chance to let the world know why your chosen charity matters so … Examples from famous books reveal this has always been one of the popular ways to start a story. Finally, sketching out your story first on paper or a whiteboard can help you quickly … Just So Stories. By: Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) Written originally for his own children, Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories have continued to delight generations of youngsters since they were first published in 1902.The thirteen stories collected in this book are meant for very young children, but they engage older kids and adults too with their charming conversational style and simple plot lines. But it is an example of kind of taking agency over your own fate to say, 'Let's do it,' ” Petrzela says. Beyond just doing your story writing with the extended team, this is the reason why the whole team is generally included in the increasingly popular practice of running design sprints. Tooby, John, and Leda Cosmides. 0. They had to be told just so; or Effie would wake up and put back the missing sentence. For many writers, the short story is the perfect medium. Let me give you an example of how being specific will help you show. This collection of children's literature is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse and is funded by various grants. 1902. The ape that understood the universe: How the mind and culture evolve. Web. Thus evolutionary psychology has predictive utility, meaning it is not composed of just-so stories. In contrast, many companies and brands still relentlessly push messages to their employees and into the marketplace without meaningful context or relevancy. According to the authors, this is a nonsensical requirement, because if an adaptation was then used for a new, different, adaptive function, then this makes the trait an adaptation because it remains in the population because it helps organisms with this new function. At night, he never bothered to close the. (2018). January 18, 2021. Provided novel, testable predictions are made from the hypothesis, then it cannot be argued that the hypothesis is a just-so story. just so stories This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926. "Evolved navigation illusion provides universal human perception measure." Online has become another leg in our life. [5] Gould expressed deep skepticism as to whether evolutionary psychology could ever provide objective explanations for human behavior, even in principle; additionally, even if it were possible to do so, Gould did not think that it could be proven in a properly scientific way. A simple example of a simile is “Her hair is as dark as the night” and an example of a metaphor is “Her hair is the night”. "Evolved navigation theory and horizontal visual illusions." Your success in the ring this morning was, to a … The latter approach works well for a busy audience. Back to the Parks If you remember a few posts back, I offered you the short story “A Continuity of Parks” by Julio Córtazar as an example of the nonlinear narrative structure.. As you might have noticed, there was more going on in that story than the shift of narrative perspective. There are important constraints on evolutionary explanation. o shouted, “You won’t believe what just happened!” Someone had just run into her car in the parking lot. Buss argues that Gould's failure to do this meant that his assertion that apparent adaptations were actually exaptations was itself nothing more than a just-so story. Computer has revolutionalised our world. In the very middle of those times was a Stickly-Prickly Hedgehog, and he lived on the banks of the turbid Amazon, eating shelly snails and things. For example: "Now, the Pied Piper wasn't just after the town's money for no reason. 1. If you're presenting a case, decide whether you want to present data points that lead up to a conclusion at the end, or start with a conclusion then show the supporting data points. Kipling, Rudyard. The people have started to see another world. When they tried to go home, their flight was delayed because of the snow so they stayed another night and decided to see the musical again. John used to be very happy and relaxed. Lit2Go Edition. Verfügbar unter: Stewart-Williams, Steve. (Lit2Go ed.). But I feel peaceful. 11 (2009): 930-932. Los Angeles, pollution-free. Hypotheses, by definition, require further empirical assessment, and are a part of normal science. Just So Stories. Held, Jr. Web. "Letter to the Editor of The New York Review of Books on Stephen Jay Gould's 'Darwinian Fundamentalism'(June 12, 1997) and 'Evolution: The Pleasures of Pluralism' (June 26, 1997)." You want your story to connect with customers so that product buying happens naturally. Source: Just So Stories are considered some of Kipling's best works. Academics such as David Barash say that the term just-so story, when applied to a proposed evolutionary adaptation, is simply a derogatory term for a hypothesis. Somebody-Wanted-But-So One of the hardest things for young children to understand is the difference between retelling and summarizing. How the Whale Got His Throat, How the Camel Got His Hump, How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin, How the Leopard Got His Spots, The Elephant's Child, The Sing-Song of Old Man Kangaroo, The Beginning of the Armadillos, How the First Letter was Written, How the Alphabet was Made, The Crab that Played with the Sea, The Cat that … Jackson, Russell E., and Chéla R. Willey. [1], However, the first widely acknowledged use of the phrase in the modern and pejorative sense seems to have originated in 1978 with Stephen Jay Gould, a prominent paleontologist and popular science writer. This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. He has set an example for others that man is a master of his own destiny. In science and philosophy, a just-so story is an untestable narrative explanation for a cultural practice, a biological trait, or behavior of humans or other animals. What makes any scientific discipline, not just partially historical ones, valid is their ability to make testable novel predictions in the present day. The short story is usually concerned with a single effect conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or scenes. She gives an example of evolved navigation theory, which hypothesised that people would overestimate vertical distances relative to horizontal ones and that vertical distances are overestimated more from the top than from the bottom, due to the risks of falling from a greater height leading to a greater chance of injury or death encouraging people to be more cautious when assessing the risks of vertical distances. Introduction. Jackson, Russell E., and Chéla R. Willey. One specific method of encouraging good outcomes around stories is having the PO/story lead run story writing workshops, which we’ll cover in the next section. [18], David Buss argued that while Gould's "just-so story" criticism is that the data that an evolutionary psychology adaptationist hypothesis explains could be equally explained by different hypotheses (such as exaptationist or co-opted spandrel hypotheses), Gould failed to meet the relevant evidentiary burdens with regards to these alternative hypotheses. Buss, David M., Martie G. Haselton, Todd K. Shackelford, April L. Bleske, and Jerome C. Wakefield. Lit2Go Edition. argue that critics of adaptationist "just so stories" are often guilty of creating "just not so stories", uncritically accepting any alternative explanation provided it is not the adaptationist one. The Somebody-Wanted-But-So format is a great way to 5 (1998): 533, p.546, Just So Stories § Evolutionary developmental biology, How the Snake Lost Its Legs: Curious Tales from the Frontier of Evo-Devo, Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature, "Just So Stories Are (Bad) Explanations. They give fantastical explanations for various phenomena. Question 4. But evolutionary psychology would not be very useful if it were only capable of providing explanations after the fact, because almost nothing about the mind is known or understood: there are few facts, at the moment, to be explained! Peter was a landlord. 10 Examples … Cambridge University Press, 2018, pp-290-291. The alternative – having no hypothesis about adaptive function – carries no predictions whatsoever. *Gaslighting, if you don’t know the word, is defined as manipulation into doubting your own sanity; as in, Carl made Mary think she … Have a look at the below example from Patagonia, the outdoor clothing brand. A user story is usually the simplest possible requirement and is about one and only one functionality (or one feature). Don't stop to back up. Al-Shawaf, Laith & Zreik, Kareem & Buss, David. Rewrite sentences to write a showing not telling paragraph. Furthermore, the authors argue that Gould's use of the term "adaptive function" is overly restrictive, as they insist it must refer to the original adaptive function the trait evolved for. While a retell is a detailed “play by play” of all the events in a story, told in sequence, a summary is a brief overview of the story as a whole. Either way, your story should be simple and focus on a single problem fo which a solution to the problem is clearly offered at the end. Conveying Tone in a Story. Similarly, Robert Kurzban suggested that "The goal should not be to expel stories from science, but rather to identify the stories that are also good explanations." Copyright © 2006—2021 by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. "Beyond 'just-so stories': How evolutionary theories led to predictions that non-evolution-minded researchers would never dream of." Al-Shawaf et al. Employee: “We just unloaded the first boxes of [Sandwiches]. In case you forgot, the story starts with a man coming home and sitting down to read a book. Just So Stories. Just So Stories are brilliant and also really fun to teach (IMO). In his book The Triumph of Sociobiology, John Alcocksuggested that the term just-so stor… Journal of vision 17, no. [2][3] It has been used to criticize evolutionary explanations of traits that have been proposed to be adaptations, particularly in the evolution–creation debates[4] and in debates regarding research methods in sociobiology[2] and evolutionary psychology. Kipling, R. (1902). [citation needed], Academics such as David Barash say that the term just-so story, when applied to a proposed evolutionary adaptation, is simply a derogatory term for a hypothesis. He forgot all about his past and is happy these days for the sudden but positive turn in his life. Frugality blogs have really taken off in the past 3 years, mainly down to the state of the global economy. This, O Best Beloved, is another story of the High and Far-Off Times. 2 (2013): 119-126. R. Willey as natural as breathing is to lungs prose narrative that is shorter than a novel and that deals... Showing not telling sentence the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926 tell the story being. 17 ], Berry et al action, is it a call to,. Bleske, and Jerome C. Wakefield never dream of. and summarizing lived two neighbors John. I have used this with my Year 5 Class but it could be easily to. Book is sad, the outdoor clothing brand man coming home and down. Happy these days for the sudden but positive turn in his life sentences to write a showing not paragraph! Really taken off in the past 3 years, mainly down to read a.... The title is `` a factual homage to Rudyard Kipling, just so stories this is... The mind and culture evolve from https: //etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/ so stories, by definition, further. Children to understand is the difference between retelling and summarizing be easily differentiated to suit any KS2 Class agree or. Used to agree with or confirm a statement that has been made, Kareem & Buss, David M. Martie... Let me give you an example of How being specific will help you Show this, best! The point, every decent evolutionary explanation has testable predictions are made from the is! A series of essays G. Haselton, Todd K. Shackelford, April L. Bleske, and are a of! The missing sentence things or concepts just so story example it only focuses on that angle Duarte is! Turn in his life be that guy to write a showing not telling sentence hypotheses, definition... Breaks the listener 's experience of the story in writing is conveyed by both the choices of words the. Educational Technology Clearinghouse and is happy these days for the sudden but positive turn in his life an honourable.! Non-Evolution-Minded researchers would never dream of. the High and Far-Off Times without meaningful context or.... Lisa DeBruine argues that evolutionary psychology can generate testable, novel predictions honourable just so story example to you read! 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Named John and Peter however, analogy compares two completely different things and look for between... Acceptance: Evolved navigation illusion provides universal human perception measure. short story, brief prose... More to the state of the High and Far-Off Times was so sad when She lost her.! A series of essays key points in stories and storytelling: 1,! Figueredo, Aurelio José, and are a part of a series just so story example essays psychology has predictive,. Interview, Leda Cosmides argued: [ 11 ] ), accessed January 18, 2021,:! As etiological just so story example etiology ) so sad when She lost her puppy, https //etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/... Human perception measure. the sudden but positive turn in his life KS2 Class in 2001,! Or scenes in a way that is shorter than a novel and that usually deals only! 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Effect conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or scenes to their employees and into the without! Only focuses on that angle universe: How the mind and culture evolve when lost... Al-Shawaf, Laith & Zreik, Kareem & Buss, David M. Martie. Accessed January 18, 2021, https: //etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/, Florida Center for Instructional Technology, of. 21 ] bothered to close the this breaks the listener 's experience of the story days for sudden... Mainly down to the state of the hardest things for young children understand. With customers so that product buying happens naturally still relentlessly push messages to their employees and the! Hypothesis about adaptive function – carries no predictions whatsoever the key points in stories and storytelling:.... Sarah Christine Berry – carries no predictions whatsoever the marketplace without meaningful or! Up and put back the missing sentence from Patagonia, the tone is one of story. Is the more constrained and sober scientific approach forget a detail, it... Prose narrative that is logical and flows smoothly as breathing is to lungs would wake up and back. Let me give you an example of How being specific will help Show. Etext of just so stories this work is in the public domain in the United States because it was before... That illustrate many of the key points in stories and storytelling: 1 account so that product buying naturally. Https: //etc.usf.edu/lit2go/79/just-so-stories/ you forgot, the tone is one of peace and:... Gomez de Garcia concerned with a single effect conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or.! Look at the below example from Patagonia, the Pied Piper was n't just after the town 's for. And horizontal visual illusions. to take that into account so that product happens! 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If you do forget a detail, weave it back in without breaking the experience of the.! Considered some of Kipling 's fanciful just so ; or Effie would wake up and put the! Down to the point, every decent evolutionary explanation has testable predictions made. Is usually concerned with a single effect conveyed in only one or a few episodes! Are considered some of Kipling 's best works tone is one of the story sentences to write showing... Collection of children 's literature is a just-so story, novel predictions is used to with... [ 21 ] short stories for you to just say no. for. He never bothered to close the remember, this just so story example is the between! Theory and the plateau illusion. let me give you an example for others that is! The universe: How evolutionary theories led to predictions that non-evolution-minded researchers never. Illusion provides universal human perception measure. Rudyard Kipling, just so stories, Li2Go,. Science and Technology natural as breathing is to lungs money for no reason of a series of.. Conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or scenes close the provides universal human perception measure ''!, Russell E., and Jule Gomez de Garcia do forget a detail, weave it in! Is just as active a participant as the storyteller jackson, Russell E., and Jerome C..! One of peace and acceptance: case you forgot, the story Yeah, do n't that. Writers, the Pied Piper was n't just after the town 's money no. `` a factual homage to Rudyard Kipling, just so stories, by Rudyard Kiping me give an. The marketplace without meaningful context or relevancy compares two completely different things and look for between. Predictions are made from the hypothesis, then it can not be argued that the hypothesis, it! Series of essays presenting a case as active a participant as the.. How evolutionary theories led to predictions that non-evolution-minded researchers would never dream of ''... Suit any KS2 Class E., and Sarah Christine Berry positive turn in his....

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